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【教學】融合體育課的教學修正策略

公告時間:2020-01-17


教學要點及建議:

  • 知道法律的要求並主張身心障礙者的權利。
  • 了解您學校中的各種身心障礙類別。認識到每種身心障礙類別的限制和調整課程的方式。
  • 了解個別學生及其支持系統:學生的兄弟姐妹,父母,特殊教育老師,職業治療師,傳播治療師,物理治療師等。
  • 必要時使用幫助:協同教學,口譯員等。
  • 對學生寄予厚望,不要低估他們的能力。
  • 提供多種形式的指導:視覺(圖片,演示,任務卡),音頻(調節速度和語氣,手語)和動覺(物理上幫助學生進行活動)。
  • 利用視覺輔助工具,檢查清單或待辦事項清單,然後列出卡片,時間表,指南,白板和例行程序。
  • 以成長的心態營造積極的氛圍。負面態度是體育鍛煉和嘗試的一大障礙。
  • 營造一種融合的氛圍,使身障和一般生(即同伴導師或支持小組)合作。
  • 邀請演講嘉賓分享他們的障別,他們面臨的挑戰,如何克服這些挑戰以及他們的能力和成就。

 

一般體育課調整方向建議

 

器材

大/小一點的擊球物
大/小/低一點的目標(球框、目標區)
在場地上做位置標記(站的位置)
用器材來增加接到球的機率(例如用桶子、籃子等來接棒球)
改變球的大小、重量、顏色、質地 

規則調整及提示

口頭提示
播放示範影片
讓班上的同學互相協助
取消時間限制
取消界線限制
讓球可以在靜止的狀況下被打擊
讓打擊者可以坐在椅子上
讓身心障礙的孩子站在比較靠近老師的位置

界線與場地

縮短距離
定義清楚的界線
簡化場地的界線、型態
大/小一點的場地範圍、移除障礙物

動作

修改動作(簡化與減量)
簡化抓、握等動作技巧
簡化身體姿勢
減少動作步驟
利用不同的身體部位達成要求

時間

改變節奏
放慢進行速度
加長/縮短進行時間
增加休息的次數

 

 

 

特定運動項目調整方向建議

 

籃球

改變球的大小、重量、顏色、質地 
允許走步(雙手持球走動)
允許雙手運球(雙手拍球,示範影片
取消禁區三秒
放大籃框
當班上有第一次接觸籃球的同學時,放慢腳步
如果有使用輪椅的同學,讓他們能夠在使用輪椅移動時將球放在腿上
如果班上有視障的同學,使用有聲音的球

高爾夫

使用比較大的高爾夫球桿頭
使用較短/較輕的高爾夫球桿
使用有顏色/較大的高爾夫球桿
練習揮桿動作的時候先不要使用球
使用球梯
將球洞的距離拉近

足球

以走路替代跑步
定義明確的邊界
縮小場地
減少隊伍人數(11人減少到6人)
如果有使用輪椅的同學,讓他們能夠在使用輪椅移動時將球放在腿上
使用軟一點、有聲音的、亮色系的球(沒有充飽的球)
使用回饋

保齡球

簡化/減少動作步驟
使用雙手擲球
保持靜態的動作
當需要的時候,使用斜坡來擲球
安排分組搭檔
給予較多的口頭提示與指導

排球

使用大一點、輕一點、軟一點、亮色系的球
讓學生接住球,而非托球
讓學生自己拋接
降低網子的高度
縮小場地
縮短發球距離
讓球可以彈到地上,再打下一球
由一人拿著球,再由另一個人打擊

網球

使用大一點、輕一點的球
使用較短、拍面較大的球拍
降低球速
降低網子的高度,或不要使用網子
使用亮色系的球
使用網球球梯發球、擊球
允許低手發球
縮短發球距離
安排分組搭檔

Teaching Tips :

  • Know what the law requires and advocate for the rights of Individuals with Disabilities (IWD).
  • Stay up to date with current practices and the programs available to IWD.
  • Learn about the various disabilities at your school. Recognize the characteristics of each disability, limitations/restrictions, and modifications.
  • Get to know the individual students and their support system: students’ sibling(s), parent(s), paraeducator, special education teacher, occupational therapist, communication therapist, physical therapist, etc.
  • Use assistance when needed: peer-tutor, paraeducator, interpreter, etc.
  • Have high expectations for your students and don’t underestimate their abilities.
  • Provide instruction in multiple modalities: visual (pictures, demonstrations, task cards), audio (adjust speed and tone, sign language), and kinesthetic (physically assist students in activity).
  • Utilize visual aids, check-off or to-do lists, this then that cards, schedules, guides, whiteboards, and routines.
  • Create a positive atmosphere with a growth mindset. Negative attitudes is a big barrier to physical activity and attempts.
  • Create an inclusive atmosphere that bonds students with and without disabilities (ie. peer mentors or support groups).
  • Bring in guest speakers to talk about their disabilities, the challenges they face, how they overcome these challenges, and their abilities and accomplishments.

General Adaptation Suggestions

 

Equipment:

Larger/lighter bat
Use of velcro
Larger goal/target
Mark positions on playing field
Lower goal/target
Scoops for catching
Vary balls (size, weight, color, texture)

Rules Prompts, Cues:

Demonstrate/model activity
Partner assisted
Disregard time limits
Oral prompt
More space between students
Eliminate outs/strike-outs
Allow ball to remain stationary
Allow batter to sit in chair
Place student with disability near teacher

Boundary/Playing Field:

Decrease distance
Use well-defined boundaries
Simplify patterns
Adapt playing area (smaller, obstacles removed)

Actions:

Change locomotor patterns
Modify grasps
Modify body positions
Reduce number of actions
Use different body parts

Time:

Vary the tempo
Slow the activity pace
Lengthen the time
Shorten the time
Provide frequent rest periods

 

Basketball

Use various size balls (size, weight, texture, color)
Allow travelling
Allow two hand dribble
Disregard three second lane violation
Use larger/lower goal
Slow the pace, especially when first learning
If student uses wheelchair, allow him to hold ball on his lap while pushing wheelchair
Use beeper ball, radio under basket for individual with visual impairment

Golf

Use a club with a larger head
Use shorter/lighter club
Use colored/larger balls
Practice without a ball
Use tee for all shots
Shorten distance to hole

Soccer

Use walking instead of running
Have well defined boundaries
Reduce playing area
Play six-a-side soccer
If student uses a wheelchair, allow him to hold ball on his lap while pushing the wheelchair
Use a deflated ball, nerf ball, beeper ball, brightly colored ball
Use a target that makes noise when hit

Bowling

Simplify/reduce the number of steps
Use two hands instead of one
Remain in stationary position
Use a ramp
Use a partner
Give continuous verbal cues

Volleyball

Use larger, lighter, softer, bright colored balls
Allow players to catch ball instead of volleying
Allow student to self toss and set ball
Lower the net
Reduce the playing court
Stand closer to net on serve
Allow ball to bounce first
Hold ball and have student hit it

Tennis

Use larger, lighter balls
Use shorter, lighter racquets
Use larger head racquets
Slow down the ball
Lower the net or do not use a net
Use brightly colored balls
Hit ball off tee
Allow a drop serve
Stand closer to net on serve
Do not use service court
Use a peer for assistance

資料來源:PE Central